The dictator Kagame at UN

The dictator Kagame at UN
Dictators like Kagame who have changed their national constitutions to remain indefinitely on power should not be involved in UN high level and global activities including chairing UN meetings

Why has the UN ignored its own report about the massacres of Hutu refugees in DRC ?

The UN has ignored its own reports, NGOs and media reports about the massacres of hundreds of thousands of Hutu in DRC Congo (estimated to be more than 400,000) by Kagame when he attacked Hutu refugee camps in Eastern DRC in 1996. This barbaric killings and human rights violations were perpetrated by Kagame’s RPF with the approval of UK and USA and with sympathetic understanding and knowledge of UNHCR and international NGOs which were operating in the refugees camps. According to the UN, NGO and media reports between 1993 and 2003 women and girls were raped. Men slaughtered. Refugees killed with machetes and sticks. The attacks of refugees also prevented humanitarian organisations to help many other refugees and were forced to die from cholera and other diseases. Other refugees who tried to return to Rwanda where killed on their way by RFI and did not reach their homes. No media, no UNHCR, no NGO were there to witness these massacres. When Kagame plans to kill, he makes sure no NGO and no media are prevent. Kagame always kills at night.

26 Jun 2016

[afrocarpus] Second EU referendum petition investigated for fraud



This petition was also advertised at other Internet News including

It has no value because foreigners and people who are not eligible to vote has signed it.

Furthermore, this petition can only valid if there was a similar petition asking the public to reject any 2nd referendum.

Second EU referendum petition investigated for fraud



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24 Jun 2016



UN DAILY NEWS from the

23 June, 2016



In Havana, Cuba, today to witness the signing of a bilateral ceasefire agreement and laying down of weapons between the Government of Colombia and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia-People's Army (FARC-EP), United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon underscored the importance of the historic event as an exemplary implementation of peace.

"On this day, in a world beset by seemingly intractable wars, the peace process in Colombia delivers on a key commitment: an agreement on a ceasefire and the laying down of weapons," the Secretary-General said.

"Today the Colombian peace process validates the perseverance of all those around the world who work to end violent conflict not through the destruction of the adversary, but through the patient search for compromise," he added.

Mr. Ban expressed admiration for the negotiating teams, which he said have demonstrated that it is possible to "achieve peace with dignity for all concerned."

"They have overcome tense moments and challenging issues to arrive at an historic achievement," he stressed.

Congratulating the Governments of Cuba and Norway for devoting "considerable diplomatic skills" to the peace process, the Secretary-General said that they, together with the accompanying countries, Chile and Venezuela, have shown how national peace efforts can be supported faithfully, discreetly and effectively.

He also recalled that six months ago, the UN Security Council and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States (CELAC) had responded to the call of the Government of Colombia and the FARC-EP, and made a commitment to support the implementation of the ceasefire agreement and the laying down of weapons.
"The signing of this essential component of the peace agreement will strengthen this commitment. It will now be crucial to mobilize the people and resources required for monitoring and verification," Mr. Ban said.

Acknowledging that the peace talks continue and that "significant issues" are still outstanding, the Secretary-General said he trusted that today's achievement will provide renewed momentum towards the last phase of the negotiations.

"Expectations are now high that the vision articulated in the agreements reached over the past three years will soon become a reality. I strongly encourage you to fulfil these hopes," the UN chief said.

"We at the United Nations are determined to do everything we can, alongside the Government and the FARC-EP, to translate a remarkable negotiating process into exemplary implementation of the peace commitments made," he added.

In conclusion, Mr. Ban noted that it was a privilege to participate in the event in his last year as Secretary-General.

"It is an honour to be by your side in laying the groundwork for lasting peace and a better future for all the country's people. Let us now work together so that the promise of peace made today in Havana is fulfilled in Colombia," he said.

The Secretary-General also met today with the President of Colombia, Juan Manuel Santos Calderón, during which Mr. Ban congratulated the Government of Colombia on the important agreement reached, noting that it was a clear demonstration of the parties' commitment to reach a final peace agreement in the near future. They also discussed ongoing preparations for the deployment of the UN Mission in Colombia.

In a separate meeting, the Secretary-General talked with the commander of the FARC-EP, Timoleón Jiménez, discussing progress made so far in the peace talks and pending matters, including the transition of FARC-EP combatants into civilian life.

In addition, Mr. Ban met with President Nicolás Maduro Moros of Venezuela and commended Venezuela for its role in the Colombian peace process. He called for an inclusive political dialogue in Venezuela. This afternoon, the Secretary-General will leave Havana to start his official visit to France on Friday.

* * *


The Security Council today strongly condemned the ballistic missile launches conducted by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK) on 21 June, noting that these repeated acts are in grave violation of obligations under the relevant resolutions adopted by the 15-nation body.

In a statement issued to the press, the Council, speaking out on the issue for the fifth time since January, deplored that these activities contribute to the development of the country's nuclear weapons delivery systems and increase tension, and regretted that DPRK is diverting resources to the pursuit of ballistic missiles while its citizens have great unmet needs.

Expressing serious concern that DPRK flagrantly disregarded the body's repeated calls, the Council urged the country to refrain from further actions, including nuclear tests, that violate the relevant Council resolutions.

The Council called upon all Member States to redouble their efforts to implement fully the sanctions imposed on the DPRK by the Council, especially the measures set out in its most recent resolution.

Reiterating the importance of maintaining peace and stability on the Korean Peninsula and in North-East Asia at large, the Council agreed to continue monitoring the situation closely and take further significant measures in line with its previously expressed determination.

* * *


The recent "stuttering momentum" in delivering humanitarian aid to Syria's besieged and hard-to-reach populations must be significantly expanded in the second half of 2016, the United Nations humanitarian chief told the Security Council today, warning that progress made to date was only "a trickle" of the country's overwhelming needs.

"There is something fundamentally wrong in a world where attacks on hospitals and schools […] have become so commonplace that they cease to incite any reaction," said Stephen O'Brien, Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs, in a briefing to the 15-member body.

Violence continues unbridled in many parts of the country, he stressed. Indeed, according to the latest report of the Independent International Commission of Inquiry on the Syrian an Arab Republic, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL/Da'esh) is committing genocide and multiple crimes against humanity and war crimes against the Yazidis in the east.

In Aleppo Governorate, an ISIL offensive on Azaz and the surrounding area has led to numerous civilian casualties, threatening up to 200,000 of the population, and in Menbij, 45,000 people had been displaced and some 65,000 others were now encircled by the Syrian Democratic Forces.

The cruel conflict continued to tear families apart and inflicted brutal suffering on the innocent, he said, recalling that, last week, at least six children had been killed and tens of others injured in heinous attacks near the Sayidda Zeinab shrine.

Millions more are in the line of fire, facing crushing poverty and alarming physical danger. Children have been forcibly detained, tortured, subjected to sexual violence and in some cases executed. Some had been recruited by ISIL and other armed groups.

Since January, some 844,325 people have been reached by the UN and its partners through inter-agency cross-line convoys, Mr. O'Brien reported, including reaching 334,150 of the 590,200 people living in besieged areas as designated by the UN. Nevertheless, major protection concerns, needs and suffering remain. There are now an estimated five million people living in hard-to-reach areas, an increase of over 900,000 people from the previous estimate.

It is vital that the stuttering momentum sustained on humanitarian access over the past few months continued and improved, he said, expressing hope that by the end of the month all besieged locations will have been reached.

"Organizing the delivery of aid must remain the responsibility of the United Nations and its partners based on need, and not subject to political or other considerations," he stressed.

The United Nations has submitted its July access plan to the Syrian authorities, requesting access to reach some 1,220,750 beneficiaries in 35 besieged, hard-to-reach and cross-line priority locations. That request had to be approved without any preconditions, stressed Mr. O'Brien, who is also the UN Emergency Relief Coordinator.

"As I have said numerous times before, we remain committed and ready to deliver aid – through any possible modality including air drops – for civilians in desperate need, whoever and wherever they are," he said, but stressed that the bottom line, however, is that the real extent of the progress cannot only be measured by ad hoc deliveries to besieged communities.

That dozens of barrel bombs were reportedly dropped on 10 June in Darayya – the day after the UN and the Syrian Arab Red Cross (SARC) delivered the first food aid to the town since November 2012 – shows that the situation for people in besieged and hard-to-reach areas will not be solved by humanitarian aid delivery alone.

"The real measure will be when the sieges, these medieval sieges, are no more, when boys don't risk sniper fire when bringing medicine to their mothers, when doctors can administer lifesaving treatments without the fear of imminent attacks, when Yazidi girls don't have to scratch their faces out of fear of being bought and sexually enslaved. That is the disgusting reality in Syria today," he concluded.

'Besiegement belongs in the Middle Ages'

Meanwhile in Geneva, Staffan de Mistura, UN Special Envoy for Syria, Jan Egeland, his Senior Special Advisor, and Yacoub El Hillo, UN Resident Coordinator/Humanitarian Coordinator for Syria, briefed the press on a meeting of the humanitarian task force set up by the International Syria Support Group (ISSG) – consisting of the UN, the Arab League, the European Union and 18 countries that have been working on a way forward since late last year.

Mr. de Mistura said that the timing of resumption of the intra-Syrian talks would depend on the discussions he will have in New York and Washington in the coming days, and in particular the debate on Syria at the Security Council next week. He said he still hopes that the talks will resume in July.

Mr. Egeland said that altogether, 16 out of the 18 besieged areas have been reached since the Task Force started work in February. The two remaining areas are Arbeen and Zamalka, both in rural Damascus, where humanitarian aid is expected to reach next week. But the Government has cleared aid for only a fraction of an estimated 40,000 people in those places.

He said ISSG members are aware that humanitarian assistance is only alleviating the suffering of the Syrian people. "Besiegement is continuing, it should never be there in the first place […] it belongs in the Middle Ages, not in our time," he said.

Medical relief has not gotten much better. The main reason for people dying within besieged areas is because there is no medical service for easily preventable diseases, he said.

For his part, Mr. El Hillo said that 13.5 million Syrians are in need of humanitarian assistance today, not all of them in besieged or hard-to-reach areas. The United Nations is very much on the ground, operating in different parts of Syria with a powerful network of both international and national partners who are also working from inside Syria but also from across the borders.

But the international donor community must remember that "the cost of doing humanitarian business in Syria is very high because of all the complications and all the impediments," he said, stressing that humanitarian appeal for 2016 is funded at 20 per cent.

* * *


Countries in the Latin America region should carry out a strategic reorientation of their labour market policies in order to increase productivity and address rising unemployment resulting from an economic slowdown, a new report by the United Nations International Labour Organization (ILO) has urged today.

The report, What works: Active labour market policies in Latin America and the Caribbean warns that the achievements made in the region since the 2000s, in terms of social inclusion and work quality, have stalled and are even beginning to reverse, which can lead to a dangerous "structural stagnation" in labour markets that could, in turn, generate an increase in inequality and informality and erosion in the middle class.

"The alarm bells are ringing, the economic slowdown will impact the region's labour markets in 2016 and over the next years," said José Manuel Salazar, the ILO's Regional Director for Latin America and the Caribbean.

"Now what we are talking about are effective solutions. The so-called active labour market policies represent a policy shift that seeks to improve and update the skills of the labour force, readjust labour supply and demand, and promote productive employment. This integrated approach is what labour markets in the region need," he added.

According to the report, which was developed by the ILO's Research Department in Geneva, despite some years of solid growth in which social progress and unemployment advanced, those achievements were not consolidated, thus revealing structural deficiencies.

To tackle unemployment, informality and low productivity growth, a policy reorientation is needed in Latin America and the CaribbeanSpecifically, the report warns that "even with remarkable progress, the shift to a knowledge driven economy and one based on better quality jobs has not been completed."

Based on a summary and analysis of labour market policies over the past two decades, the analysis concludes that many countries in Latin America do not have an integrated system of active labour market policies, even if evidence resulting from the implemented programmes in the region show that these policies have positive impacts.

Active labour market policies are interventions that help people find sustainable jobs, directly or indirectly promoting the creation of productive jobs, improving qualifications and productivity of people, and guaranteeing links between those looking for jobs and employers.

The report highlights that the available evidence suggests training programmes, employment subsidies and programmes to support self-employment and micro-entrepreneurship have shown positive results in the region, but that only in few a countries – such as Argentina, Brazil and Chile – is the level of investment in active labour market policies comparable with the levels registered in high-income countries.

In other countries of Latin America and the Caribbean, there are either no such policies or spending levels are very low, according to the report, which highlights the need to improve the active labour market policies in the region so that countries can take full advantage of their positive effects.

The report also proposes a series of improvements in the design and implementation of active labour market policies, such as creating incentives to increase the number of beneficiaries, adapting the policies to the specific context, and making sure that programmes benefit all of the target population.

"Even if these policies have great potential, we need to highlight that the design, targeting and implementation are essential to guarantee their effectiveness," said ILO specialist Veronica Escudero, one of the authors of the report.

In this sense, it is necessary to "be very clear about the employment barriers that people in a country face, as well as the needs of the local labour market, to ensure the relevance of the policies and to maximize their impact, including the number of beneficiaries," she explained.

The report includes analyses of data from the entire region, with an emphasis on Argentina, Colombia and Peru, in order to understand the needs and challenges of the generation and implementation of these policies.

* * *


Ahead of the International Day in Support of Victims of Torture, UN human rights experts highlighted the lack of policies and methods to recognise people's self-identified gender, and the need to carry out proper risk assessments in order to protect LGBTI people from stigmatization and violence in detention.

In a joint statement, the Chair of the UN Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture, the Chair of the UN Committee against Torture, the UN Special Rapporteur on Torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, and the Chairperson of the Board of Trustees of the UN Voluntary Fund for Victims of Torture called on Member States to redouble their efforts to prevent the ill-treatment and torture faced by LGBTI people in places of detention.

Underscoring the risk of torture and ill-treatment that lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersex (LGBTI) persons are at, particularly where they may be deprived of their liberty, Jens Modvig, Chair of the Committee against Torture, said "The Committee is striving to protect LGBTI people from being forcibly sent back to countries where, based on their sexual orientation, gender identity or sex characteristics, they may face torture, criminalization, detention, ill-treatment and even murder."

"For transgender women and men, for example, it is often a situation of complete abandonment, resulting in some transgender women being placed in male-only prisons, where they are exposed to a high risk of rape, often with the complicity of prison personnel," said Sir Malcolm Evans, Chair of the UN Subcommittee on Prevention of Torture. In its ninth annual report, the Subcommittee identified measures for the prevention of torture and ill-treatment of LGBTI people in detention.

Drawing the attention of countries to their obligations under international human rights law and standards, UN Special Rapporteur on Torture, Juan E. Méndez said, "LGBTI people are often stigmatized and dehumanized, leaving them particularly vulnerable to violence and ill-treatment, that in many cases amounts to torture."

"Breaking the silence on torture and ill-treatment endured by LGBTI people is critical," said Gaby Oré Aguilar, Chairperson of the Board of Trustees of the UN Fund for Victims of Torture, calling for increased support for the rehabilitation of victims, including LGBTI people. "The UN Fund for Victims of Torture thus supports programmes providing specialized assistance to LGBTI victims of torture," added Ms. Aguilar.

"It is crucial that LGBTI people are fully involved in discussions and decisions concerning how detention systems can respond most effectively to their needs and respect their human rights," the experts stressed.

* * *


The number of people suffering from drug use disorders has increased disproportionally for the first time in six years in 2014, while the number of people who used at least one drug stayed at five per cent of the adult population, according to the annual report prepared by the United Nations.

The World Drug Report 2016, which examines the health impact of using opiates, cocaine, cannabis, amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) and new psychoactive substances (NPS), was released today by the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), ahead of the International Day Against Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking on 26 June.

It also came in the wake of the UN General Assembly Special Session on the World Drug Problem (UNGASS), held in April, which resulted in a series of concrete operational recommendations and marked a landmark moment in global drug policy.

The report found nearly 250 million people between the ages of 15 and 64 used at least one drug in 2014. Although this figure has not grown over the past four years in proportion to the global population, the number of people classified as suffering from drug use disorders exceeded 29 million people, compared with 27 million in the previous report.

Additionally, around 12 million people inject drugs, with 14 per cent of these living with HIV. The overall impact of drug use in terms of health consequences continues to be devastating.

Heroin continues to be the drug that kills the most people and this resurgence must be addressed urgently

Collectively, these look to promote long-term, sustainable, development-oriented and balanced drug control policies and programmes.

As UNODC Executive Director Yury Fedotov notes, it is critical that the international community come together to ensure the commitments adopted at the UNGASS are met – and the World Drug Report offers an important tool to assist with this task.

"By providing a comprehensive overview of major developments in drug markets, trafficking routes and the health impact of drug use, the 2016 World Drug Report highlights support for the comprehensive, balanced and integrated rights-based approaches as reflected in the outcome document which emerged from the UNGASS," he said in a press release.

Drug use and its health consequences

While drug-related mortality has remained stable around the world, there were still around 207,000 deaths reported in 2014, an unacceptably high number of deaths which are preventable if adequate interventions are in place.
Heroin use – and related overdose deaths – appears to have increased sharply over the last two years in some countries in North America and Western and Central Europe. Underlining the significance of this, Mr. Fedotov noted that while the challenges posed by new psychoactive substances remain a serious concern, "heroin continues to be the drug that kills the most people and this resurgence must be addressed urgently."

Overall, opioids continue to pose the highest potential harm and health consequences among major drugs.

Cannabis, meanwhile, remains the most commonly used drug at the global level, with an estimated 183 million people having used it in 2014. By analysing trends over several years, the report shows that with changing social norms towards cannabis – predominantly in the west – cannabis use has climbed in parallel with higher acceptability towards the drug. In many regions, more people have entered treatment for cannabis use disorders over the past decade.

The report also includes new findings related to people who inject drugs. For example, the link between the use of stimulants (among them new psychoactive substances which are not under international control) and engaging in risky injecting and sexual behaviours which can result in a higher risk of HIV infection, is examined.

Additional findings point to high levels of drug use in prison, including the use of opiates and injecting drug use. Prisons therefore remain a high-risk environment for infectious diseases, and the prevalence of HIV, hepatitis and tuberculosis among persons held in prison can be substantially higher than among the general population. The risk from overdose continues to be high among ex-prisoners particularly shortly after their release from prison.

The report notes that men are three times more likely than women to use cannabis, cocaine or amphetamines, whereas women are more likely than men to engage in the non-medical use of opioids and tranquilizers. Gender disparities can be attributed to the opportunity of drug use in a social environment, rather than gender being a factor determining drug use.

Despite the fact that more men use drugs than women, the impact of drug use is greater on women than it is on men, because women tend to lack access to the continuum of care for drug use dependence. Within the family context, female partners and children of drug users are also more likely to be the victims of drug-related violence.

World drug problem and sustainable development

With 2016 marking the first year of the adoption of the new Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the report provides a special focus on these linkages. The SDGs have been divided in five broad areas: social development; economic development; environmental sustainability; peaceful, just and inclusive societies; and partnerships.

The report highlights a strong link between poverty and several aspects of the drug problem. Indeed, the brunt of the drug use problem is borne by people who are poor in relation to the societies in which they live, as can be seen in stark terms in wealthier countries. The strong association between social and economic disadvantage and drug use disorders can be seen when analysing different aspects of marginalization and social exclusion, such as unemployment and low levels of education.

The World Drug Report 2016 examines the health impact of using opiates, cocaine, cannabis, amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) and new psychoactive substances (NPS)In a video message to the UNODC Special Event in Geneva tyo launch the 2016 Report, Oh Joon, President of the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) said with the adoption of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, Member States had set an ambitious new framework with 17 Sustainable Development Goals. "We have shared responsibility in achieving these goals as well as in addressing the world drug problem," he added.
Shared responsibility is a principle at the heart of the work of ECOSOC and its functional commissions, he said, explaining that that Commission on Narcotic Drugs plays an important role in this context. Under the auspices of ECOSOC, the 2016 session of the High-Level Political Forum (HLPF) will be held in July to review the implementation of the 2030 Agenda.

"The forum will fully assume its central role in overseeing a network of review and follow-up processes at the global level. The theme of the 2016 session is 'Ensuring that no one is left behind," said Mr. Oh, noting that he has invited all ECOSOC functional commissions to contribute to the HLPF, showcasing their diverse contributions to the 2030 Agenda.

For its part, the Commission on Narcotic Drugs has long taken a broad development approach to address links between drug-related issues and sustainable development. As such, efforts to achieve the SDGs and effectively address the world drug problem are complementary and mutually reinforcing, he said.

* * *


United Nations General Assembly President Mogens Lykketoft expressed sincere condolences today to the widow, friends and colleagues of former Assembly President John Ashe, who died on Wednesday.

"Despite the many as yet unproven accusations made against him, Mr. Ashe was for many years a hard-working and popular member of the diplomatic corps in New York and at the United Nations," said Mr. Lykketoft.

"I know that his death will come as sad news to the many professional friends and colleagues he made during his time here," he added.

Mr. Lykketoft recalled that Mr. Ashe, a diplomat from Antigua and Barbuda, served as General Assembly President for its 68th session – from September 2013 until September 2014 – and had since October 2015 been facing criminal charges in the United States courts related to his term as President.

"We wish his wife, family and friends well as they come to terms with his sudden death," Mr. Lykketoft said.

* * *


With nearly half the world's 259 million widows living poverty, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon today urged greater efforts to "make them more visible in our societies" and ensure they are a vital part of the UN Sustainable Development Agenda's pledge to 'leave no one behind.'

"Widows are often stigmatized by their families and communities. Many suffer discrimination based on age and gender. Some have lived lives marked by physical and sexual abuse," noted Mr. Ban in his message for International Widows' Day.

Recalling that nearly half of the 259 million widows around the world live in poverty, the Secretary-General explained that they face economic challenges and have very limited economic opportunities.

"Older widows often have few economic assets, after a lifetime of hard but unpaid work. Even in developed countries, the value of women's pensions can be some 40 per cent lower than men's," said Mr. Ban stressing on the difficulties faced them.

He also noted that younger widows face added challenges as heads of households with childcare responsibilities.

The Secretary-General further said that the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development with its pledge to leave no one behind has a particular resonance for widows, who are among the most marginalized and isolated.

"On International Widows' Day, let us pledge to make widows more visible in our societies, and to support them in living productive, equal and fulfilling lives," Mr. Ban concluded.

To give special recognition to the situation of widows of all ages and across regions and cultures, the UN General Assembly, in 2010, declared 23 June as International Widows' Day.

* * *


Concluding a three-day visit to Viet Nam, a United Nations envoy has called on the government, civil society and all stakeholders to take united action to eliminate violence against children.

"Violence against children also has high financial costs for society through its long-lasting impact on child development, and for the budgets of the health, social welfare and criminal justice systems," said Marta Santos Pais, the UN Special Representative on Violence against Children, in her meeting with government officials. "By investing in prevention, we can strengthen Viet Nam's human and social capital," she added.

Ms. Santos Pais said the recently adopted Child Law and the strong network of social workers, supported by human and financial resources can pave the way for a strong collaboration where everyone can help transform this law into action to eliminate violence against children.

There are an estimated 3.3 million children in need of special protection and particularly vulnerable to violence, which accounts for about 12 per cent of the total child population in Viet Nam.

Countless numbers of children are vulnerable to neglect, abuse, trafficking and sexual exploitation. Children with disabilities remain particularly vulnerable and are three to four times more likely to be victims of violence, neglect and sexual abuse than their peers. Over 1.7 million are child workers, 172,500 are without parental care, 21,000 live on the street, 12,000 children are involved with the justice system, 2,381 are living with HIV/AIDS, and 1,067 use drugs.

Estimates on violence against children in Viet Nam are based on the definition of a child as under 16 years of age compared with the international norm of persons under 18 years of age.

These figures almost certainly underestimate the number of children in need of care and protection. Data on violence against children in Viet Nam is patchy, and as in many other countries government estimates based on administrative data are generally far below those based on independent surveys conducted by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and academics.

"If we witness a child being a victim of violence, we should take action and report it to the authorities," added Ms. Santos Pais.

In addition to physical violence, children are increasingly exposed to the danger of being sexually abused or taken advantage of online. A recent poll in Viet Nam has shown that 41 per cent of young people aged 18 years old have witnessed their friends participate in risky behaviours online.

Preventing and responding to violence against children is a high priority for the UN, as the new Sustainable Development Goals include a specific target, 16.2, to end all forms of violence against children.

Within the framework of the new One UN Strategic Plan 2017-2021, the UN remains committed to supporting the Government in its efforts to end all forms of violence against children, including by strengthening the national child protection system, changing perceptions and attitudes of society towards violence against children, and to encourage children and the wider population to speak up when they witness such violence in their environment.

During her visit, Ms. Santos Pais delivered a keynote speech at the opening of the 4th Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Children Forum in Ha Noi, held a dialogue with the child delegates at the Forum, and visited the Social Work Center in Da Nang, which is supported by the UN Children's Fund (UNICEF).

* * *


Marking the tenth anniversary of the first meeting of the Peacebuilding Commission –which has become known as 'Peacekeeping Day' – United Nations Deputy Secretary-General Jan Eliasson today urged Member States, particularly those with membership in the Security Council, to make full use of the Commission and its role in preventing violent conflict.

Speaking on behalf of the Secretary-General, Mr. Eliasson recalled resolutions recently adopted by the General Assembly and the Security Council which stress that sustaining peace spans the entire conflict cycle, with a focus on prevention, as well as on addressing continuation, escalation and recurrence of conflict. The resolutions also emphasize the Peacebuilding Commission's advice during transition periods when peacekeeping operations and special political mission mandates are being defined or reviewed.

"This comprehensive approach spreads responsibility for prevention over the entire UN system," he said, welcoming the encouragement of the Commission to give advice on addressing the drivers of violent conflict. "This should be done in an effective, coherent and comprehensive manner, bringing together all relevant actors across the UN system," he added.

Noting the fragility of transitions and the risks of relapse to conflict, Mr. Eliasson also welcomed the Security Council's intention to regularly request and draw upon the specific, strategic and targeted advice of the Peacebuilding Commission. He further said that it is during transitions that the UN system jointly identify peacebuilding needs and in many cases reconfigures its presence on the ground, underlining the following challenges:

Risks of fragmentation;
Complexities in the financing; and
Political support

Breaking down 'silos'

Emphasizing that fragmentation of work in periods of transition is not only costly but also reduces impact, the Deputy Secretary-General underlined the effective role played by the Peacebuilding Fund in enhancing coherence among different actors within the UN system. To be more effective, as a system, he said "silos" should be broken down through a unified vision and coherent "horizontal" actions.

"The Fund supports initiatives which align with a common peacebuilding vision of the Member States and which the UN can strengthen by bringing together various entities," he said and added that he believes Member States also need to "re-think the scope of peacebuilding and to consider ways in which they, too, can bring a greater level of coherence to efforts to sustain peace."

Overcoming the 'financial cliff'

As a result of the challenges and complexities from financing, in particular those brought on by the different financing streams – both within the UN system and for the countries – Mr. Eliasson noted that critical long-term peacebuilding tasks are often under-resourced.

Explaining this phenomenon in the real world, he said the work moves from activities such as missions mandated by the Security Council, funded by assessed contributions, to those undertaken by the UN country teams which are funded by voluntary contributions, development funding tends to come too late and declines too early, just as or at times even before, the missions are drawing down.

"Some have referred to this as a 'financial cliff,'" he said.

Recalling that the Peacebuilding Fund was created, in part to avoid this cliff by providing quick funding for critical peacebuilding initiatives, he warned that Fund itself is facing a desperate funding shortfall and stressed that this situation should be addressed urgently. He applauded UN Member States for hosting a pledging conference for the Fund in September, and urged them to attend and contribute generously.

Also recalling the request to the Secretary-General by the sustaining peace resolutions to present options to ensure adequate resourcing of UN peacebuilding, Mr. Eliasson sought the support of the Member States through both assessed and voluntary contributions, including during mission transitions and drawdown.

"This would substantially support the stability and continuity of peacebuilding activities," he said.

He said that a group has been setup within the UN to work on these options, building on what has already been done. He reported that the Fifth Committee recently approved $14 million in programmatic funding in peacekeeping budgets in five countries to support mandate implementation through UN Country Team peacebuilding, including in important transitions such as that of the UN mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH).

Closing the gap in political support

Highlighting the role of the Special Representatives of the Secretary-General as critical to the political processes particularly during a transition, the Deputy Secretary-General expressed that post transition, it often receives significantly less support, even though it remains important.

This situation, he said creates a "critical gap" which has been partly filled by regional political offices and by the Resident Coordinator, supported in some countries by Peace and Development Advisers through a joint DPA-UNDP, and supported by Peacebuilding Support Office.

Mr. Eliasson expressed his appreciation to the leadership of Ambassador Kamau of Kenya, the current Chair of the Commission who recently visited West Africa to support the ongoing post-Ebola recovery process and long-term peacebuilding priorities.

He also commended former Chairs Ambassador Skoog of Sweden and Ambassador Patriota of Brazil for their important contributions.

Closing his remarks, the Deputy Secretary-General said that the peacebuilding architecture was created in 2005 to fill a "gaping hole" in the UN machinery, and the new resolutions provide a roadmap for the system to move in a new direction.

"The people of the world count on the support, on the political will and on the leadership of the entire membership to truly sustain peace. This is a challenge we should all accept and embrace," he concluded.

* * *


Evelyn Amony was abducted at age 11 from her village in northern Uganda and then forced to become the "wife" of Joseph Kony – one Africa's most feared warlords, infamous for his casual brutality, and leader of the Lord's Resistance Army, the violent rebel group better known as the LRA.

Ms. Amony was rescued by the Ugandan military in 2004 after 11 years of being held captive. A year later, she joined a peace delegation to negotiate an end to the LRA's 20-year insurgency. The negotiations were not successful.

At the launch of her memoir, I am Evelyn Amony: Reclaiming My Life from the Lord's Resistance Army in New York, an event hosted by UN Women, she spoke about her experiences as one of the more than 60,000 children abducted in East and Central Africa in the 1990s by the LRA.

UN News Centre: Can you describe what happened the day you were abducted by the Lord's Resistance Army?

Evelyn Amony: I was kidnapped on my way back home from school in Atiak in northern Uganda on 25 August, 1994. I met the LRA along the way. I was with about five other children, but only three of us were abducted, because they only wanted young children, they did not want anyone above the age of 15 years.

They didn't tell me why they were taking me; they just told me on the very first day that they were taking me to [Uganda's capital] Kampala. I asked the men who abducted me if we had to walk through the bush to reach Kampala instead of taking the road. They told me it was the shortest way.

UN News Centre: You were 11-years-old. Is it possible for you to explain what was going through your mind?

Evelyn Amony: It was not easy for me that day, because it was the first time for me to see the LRA and it was also the first time that I had to carry heavy luggage.

UN News Centre: Did you try to escape or to get a message to your parents?

Evelyn Amony: There was no way for me to communicate with my parents. On the second night with the LRA, I witnessed them kill another abducted child who attempted to escape. That scared me so, so much that I had to let go of the idea of escaping

UN News Centre: What went through your mind, watching another child being killed?

Evelyn Amony: It wasn't easy for me because it was the first time to observe someone being killed. I saw how they used a machete to slice the person and ever since that day the picture of how that person was killed has remained on my mind.

UN News Centre: What happened when Joseph Kony decided to take you as one of his wives?

Evelyn Amony: That was a very terrible day in my life, because the people who had abducted me were fighting among themselves over me. They were fighting over who would take me as their wife. I was only 12 years old.

The first time I met Kony, I didn't even know that it was him. I used to hear from my parents and others describing him as a short man with a very long beard. So when I was abducted, I kept looking for a man that looked like him.

UN News Centre: How did he treat you?

Evelyn Amony: It's not easy for me to describe, but I will try to. When we reached Sudan, the moment I turned 14 years – that was the point he turned me into his wife.

UN News Centre: Do you mean that he forced you to have sex with him?

Evelyn Amony: Yes, he forced me to have sex with him, he raped me. I spent eleven-and-a-half years with him. Eventually, I got used to what was happening because I also used to observe other women going to his house to spend the night there. So I adjusted to the situation and had to accept that was how my life was now.

UN News Centre: You had three children with Kony?

Evelyn Amony: It is true I had children with him. I returned with two children, but the third disappeared and I'm still looking for that child today. I have no idea where that child is, because the child disappeared in a battle. There was a big battle that was happening between a combination of different soldiers from Sudan and Uganda that had joined together to fight the LRA. It was in that battle that my child went missing.

In my mind I think that maybe that child was captured by the Uganda People's Defence Force, but up to [now] I have not found the child.

UN News Centre: What type of person is Joseph Kony?

Evelyn Amony: It is very hard to understand the character of Joseph Kony, because when you are there, it is not exactly clear that he is the person leading the LRA. It is very hard to understand his qualities because he had certain kinds of spiritual elements in him. Moreover, he used to tell us that if you leave the rebellion to return home, you run the risk of running into bad luck.

UN News Centre: Was he capable of kindness?

Evelyn Amony: There are three moments of kindness that I saw in him. First he saved my life when I was supposed to be killed. Then at a moment when I was drowning in the river, he came and saved me and took me out of the river.

The third moment of kindness that I saw in him was when a number of children were abducted in a place called Palabek in northern Uganda. When some of the child soldiers wanted to kill those newly abducted children he told them that 'no child 15 years and below should be killed – if any of you dares to do that, you will be killed.'

UN News Centre: How can this ongoing insurgency be resolved?

Evelyn Amony: You know it is several years since I was with him; as a rebel leader he keeps changing his tactics. He has very many tactics. So what I can suggest is for everyone to negotiate with him. I would also like to advise that if supporters of Kony and his rebellion can be identified and stopped from giving support in the form of arms or whatever other support they give to keep the rebellion going, then that could help to bring this to a close.

The supporters are the ones who continue to encourage him and give him advice on what to do. Yet at the end of the day, he is the one who remains in the bush and who is causing suffering.

UN News Center: Do you know what he ultimately wants?

Evelyn Amony: It is hard to know what he wants, but what I learned during the peace talks was that he had an interest in negotiating. Maybe he could have even signed the peace deal, but then there were other supporters behind the scenes who reportedly were misadvising him not to engage in the talks. Maybe that could have contributed to the failure of the peace deal.

UN News Centre: You're 33 now, you've been through a terrible ordeal, what's your motivation in life?

Evelyn Amony: Thank you very much for that question. Even if I have gone through all that suffering, for as long as I live, for as long as I have my legs and can walk and can see, I can still do great things to bring about change in this world.

UN News Centre: And what are those great things you're planning to do?

Evelyn Amony: Some of the great things I can do for instance is writing down my story and sharing it with the world so that they know that war is bad and has very negative consequences for women and children. And I can advocate on behalf of women who have experienced war like myself so that they can find closure.

You can find more on Evelyn's story in her memoir called: I Am Evelyn Amony: Reclaiming my Life from the Lord's Resistance Army. It is published by University of Wisconsin Press.

* * *


United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon today announced the appointment of Ivan Šimonović of Croatia as his Special Adviser on the Responsibility to Protect.

Mr. Šimonović is currently Assistant Secretary-General for Human Rights and Head of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR) in New York. He intends to pursue a career in academia while taking up this assignment on 1 October 2016, the Secretary-General said in a statement.

"In his role as the Special Adviser on the Responsibility to Protect, Mr. Šimonović will work under the overall guidance of the Special Adviser of the Secretary-General on the Prevention of Genocide to further the political, institutional and operational development of the responsibility to protect principle, as set out by the General Assembly in paragraphs 138 and 139 of the 2005 World Summit Outcome document," the statement said.

Mr. Šimonović succeeds Jennifer Welsh of Canada. In the statement, the Secretary-General said he is "deeply grateful for her exceptional leadership and advice on the development and implementation of the responsibility to protect."

Before joining the UN in 2010, Mr. Šimonović held the position of Minister of Justice of Croatia. He was previously Deputy Minister in the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Permanent Representative to the UN in New York, where he served as President of the Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC).

Mr. Šimonović worked as a professor in the faculty of law at the University of Zagreb, where he served as Head of the Legal Theory Department, Vice-Dean and Vice-Rector for international cooperation.

In an expert capacity, he has been a member of the Council of Europe's Commission for Democracy through Law (the Venice Commission) and the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance, as well as the Agent of the Republic of Croatia before the UN International Court of Justice. He also served as the President of the Croatian United Nations Association.

Mr. Šimonović has a graduate degree in law, a master's degree in public administration and politics, and a Ph.D. from the University of Zagreb.

* * *


The efforts of women and men engaged in public service are crucial to the implementation of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said today, paying tribute to public servants on the day set aside by the General Assembly to spotlight their invaluable contributions.

"Each Sustainable Development Goal is linked to the delivery of public service: from health to education, from safety to the rule of law [and] from water and energy to economic policies and beyond," the Secretary-General said in his message on United Nations Public Service Day.

Paying tribute to the women and men engaged in public service in all countries for their dedication to excellence, the UN chief also noted the need for a diverse, ethical competent, equipped and well-resourced public service in every country, and that it needs to be dedicated to effectively serving people and improving the lives of the poorest and most vulnerable.

Recognizing the staff of the United Nations, the Secretary-General said: "Across 10 years leading this noble organization, I marvel at their dedication and professionalism every single day."

"Together, let us to create an environment where public service can flourish with creativity, innovation and a shared drive to realize the 2030 Agenda," he concluded.

* * *


The United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said today it is providing agricultural and livelihood assistance to affected host communities and displaced people in the Lake Chad Basin as a result of massive population displacements and insecurity that are putting livelihoods and food security at high risk.

In a press release, FAO said that as of June, 4.6 million people are severely food insecure in the Lake Chad Basin, of which 65 per cent are located in northeast Nigeria, especially in Borno and Yobe states.

"After three consecutive lost agriculture seasons, farmers from both host communities and displaced people are resuming agriculture activities. People are preparing their land and host communities have even allocated land to the internally displaced to farm this year," said Rosanne Marchesich, Response Team Leader and Senior Strategic Advisor of FAO's Strategic Programme Management Team on Resilience, upon her return from an FAO field mission in Borno and Yobe states.

In northeast Nigeria alone, the impact of the conflict on agriculture is estimated at $3.7 billion due to livestock losses and reduced agricultural production, destruction of irrigation and farming facilities, and collapse of extension services including veterinary health facilities, FAO said.

Specifically, FAO is providing critical agricultural and livelihood assistance to 92,000 people in the Lake Chad Basin, and will reach an additional 123,200 people in the coming months with essential crops for the ongoing and upcoming agricultural seasons. Many of the farmers who will receive seeds didn't plant in the past two years due to insecurity and the lack of agricultural inputs.

In addition, FAO is increasing its field presence by setting up a field office in Maiduguri, northeast Nigeria, to ensure adequate monitoring of interventions. Enhanced efforts are being made to better assess the current needs and develop coordinated interventions, together with national authorities and other partners.

"In the affected areas, civilians bear the burden of insecurity. Displaced people lost their assets and most of them rely on the limited resources of host communities, who themselves have suffered from the disruption of agricultural activities and of transhumance flows over the past few years," FAO noted. "Staple food prices have also increased, with rises up to 50 to 100 percent reported in some areas of Borno State."

FAO stressed that more funds are needed to address food security and livelihood needs on a larger scale. To this end, FAO is preparing a sub-regional strategy to mobilize more resources and provide increased support to vulnerable communities in the affected areas of Cameroon, Chad, Niger and Nigeria.

"FAO and its partners must keep the momentum and build on recent interventions to expand livelihood assistance," said Patrick David, Deputy Head of the Sub-Regional Resilience Team for West Africa/Sahel.

FAO also said it is seeking to mobilize $15 million to reach an additional 63,000 families – or about 504,000 people – by the end of the year with a wide range of agriculture-based activities aimed to quickly generate food production and income, as well as protect livelihoods.

* * *


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The hate of men will pass, and dictators die, and the power they took from the people will return to the people. And so long as men die, liberty will never perish.
I have loved justice and hated iniquity: therefore I die in exile.
The price good men pay for indifference to public affairs is to be ruled by evil men.
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-“The enemies of Freedom do not argue ; they shout and they shoot.”

The principal key root causes that lead to the Rwandan genocide of 1994 that affected all Rwandan ethnic groups were:

1)The majority Hutu community’s fear of the return of the discriminatory monarchy system that was practiced by the minority Tutsi community against the enslaved majority Hutu community for about 500 years

2)The Hutu community’s fear of Kagame’s guerrilla that committed massacres in the North of the country and other parts of the countries including assassinations of Rwandan politicians.

3) The Rwandan people felt abandoned by the international community ( who was believed to support Kagame’s guerrilla) and then decided to defend themselves with whatever means they had against the advance of Kagame’ guerrilla supported by Ugandan, Tanzanian and Ethiopian armies and other Western powers.

-“The enemies of Freedom do not argue ; they shout and they shoot.”

-“The hate of men will pass, and dictators die, and the power they took from the people will return to the people. And so long as men die, liberty will never perish.”

-“The price good men pay for indifference to public affairs is to be ruled by evil men.”

-“I have loved justice and hated iniquity: therefore I die in exile.”

The Rwanda war of 1990-1994 had multiple dimensions.

The Rwanda war of 1990-1994 had multiple dimensions. Among Kagame’s rebels who were fighting against the Rwandan government, there were foreigners, mainly Ugandan fighters who were hired to kill and rape innocent Rwandan people in Rwanda and refugees in DRC.



United Kingdom's Proxy Wars in Africa: The Case of Rwanda and DR Congo:

The Rwandan genocide and 6,000,000 Congolese and Hutu refugees killed are the culminating point of a long UK’s battle to expand their influence to the African Great Lakes Region. UK supported Kagame’s guerrilla war by providing military support and money. The UK refused to intervene in Rwanda during the genocide to allow Kagame to take power by military means that triggered the genocide. Kagame’s fighters and their families were on the Ugandan payroll paid by UK budget support.

· 4 Heads of State assassinated in the francophone African Great Lakes Region.
· 2,000,000 people died in Hutu and Tutsi genocides in Rwanda, Burundi and RD.Congo.
· 600,000 Hutu refugees killed in R.D.Congo, Uganda, Central African Republic and Rep of Congo.
· 6,000,000 Congolese dead.
· 8,000,000 internal displaced people in Rwanda, Burundi and DR. Congo.
· 500,000 permanent Rwandan and Burundian Hutu refugees, and Congolese refugees around the world.
· English language expansion to Rwanda to replace the French language.
· 20,000 Kagame’s fighters paid salaries from the British Budget Support from 1986 to present.
· £500,000 of British taxpayer’s money paid, so far, to Kagame and his cronies through the budget support, SWAPs, Tutsi-dominated parliament, consultancy, British and Tutsi-owned NGOs.
· Kagame has paid back the British aid received to invade Rwanda and to strengthen his political power by joining the East African Community together with Burundi, joining the Commonwealth, imposing the English Language to Rwandans to replace the French language; helping the British to establish businesses and to access to jobs in Rwanda, and to exploit minerals in D.R.Congo.

Thousands of Hutu murdered by Kagame inside Rwanda, e.g. Kibeho massacres

Thousands of Hutu murdered by Kagame inside Rwanda, e.g. Kibeho massacres
Kagame killed 200,000 Hutus from all regions of the country, the elderly and children who were left by their relatives, the disabled were burned alive. Other thousands of people were killed in several camps of displaced persons including Kibeho camp. All these war crimes remain unpunished.The British news reporters were accompanying Kagame’s fighters on day-by-day basis and witnessed these massacres, but they never reported on this.

Download Documents from Amnesty International

25,000 Hutu bodies floated down River Akagera into Lake Victoria in Uganda.

25,000  Hutu bodies  floated down River Akagera into Lake Victoria in Uganda.
The British irrational, extremist, partisan,biased, one-sided media and politicians have disregarded Kagame war crimes e.g. the Kibeho camp massacres, massacres of innocents Hutu refugees in DR. Congo. The British media have been supporting Kagame since he invaded Rwanda by organising the propaganda against the French over the Rwandan genocide, suppressing the truth about the genocide and promoting the impunity of Kagame and his cronies in the African Great Lakes Region. For the British, Rwanda does not need democracy, Rwanda is the African Israel; and Kagame and his guerilla fighters are heroes.The extremist British news reporters including Fergal Keane, Chris Simpson, Chris McGreal, Mark Doyle, etc. continue to hate the Hutus communities and to polarise the Rwandan society.

Kagame political ambitions triggered the genocide.

Kagame  political  ambitions triggered the genocide.
Kagame’s guerrilla war was aimed at accessing to power at any cost. He rejected all attempts and advice that could stop his military adventures including the cease-fire, political negotiations and cohabitation, and UN peacekeeping interventions. He ignored all warnings that could have helped him to manage the war without tragic consequences. Either you supported Kagame’ s wars and you are now his friend, or you were against his wars and you are his enemy. Therefore, Kagame as the Rwandan strong man now, you have to apologise to him for having been against his war and condemned his war crimes, or accept to be labelled as having been involved in the genocide. All key Kagame’s fighters who committed war crimes and crimes against humanity are the ones who hold key positions in Rwandan army and government for the last 15 years. They continue to be supported and advised by the British including Tony Blair, Andrew Mitchell MP, and the British army senior officials.

Aid that kills: The British Budget Support financed Museveni and Kagame’s wars in Rwanda and DRC.

Aid that kills: The British Budget Support  financed Museveni and Kagame’s wars in Rwanda and DRC.
Genocide propaganda and fabrications are used by the so-called British scholars, news reporters and investigative journalists to promote their CVs and to get income out of the genocide through the selling of their books, providing testimonies against the French, access to consultancy contracts from the UN and Kagame, and participation in conferences and lectures in Rwanda, UK and internationally about genocide. Genocide propaganda has become a lucrative business for Kagame and the British. Anyone who condemned or did not support Kagame’s war is now in jail in Rwanda under the gacaca courts system suuported by British tax payer's money, or his/she is on arrest warrant if he/she managed to flee the Kagame’s regime. Others have fled the country and are still fleeing now. Many others Rwandans are being persecuted in their own country. Kagame is waiting indefinitely for the apologies from other players who warn him or who wanted to help to ensure that political negotiations take place between Kagame and the former government he was fighting against. Britain continues to supply foreign aid to Kagame and his cronies with media reports highlighting economic successes of Rwanda. Such reports are flawed and are aimed at misleading the British public to justify the use of British taxpayers’ money. Kagame and his cronies continue to milk British taxpayers’ money under the British budget support. This started from 1986 through the British budget support to Uganda until now.

Dictator Kagame: No remorse for his unwise actions and ambitions that led to the Rwandan genocide.

Dictator Kagame: No remorse for his unwise actions and ambitions that led to the  Rwandan genocide.
No apologies yet to the Rwandan people. The assassination of President Juvenal Habyarimana by Kagame was the only gateway for Kagame to access power in Rwanda. The British media, politicians, and the so-called British scholars took the role of obstructing the search for the truth and justice; and of denying this assassination on behalf of General Kagame. General Paul Kagame has been obliging the whole world to apologise for his mistakes and war crimes. The UK’s way to apologise has been pumping massive aid into Rwanda's crony government and parliement; and supporting Kagame though media campaigns.

Fanatical, partisan, suspicious, childish and fawning relations between UK and Kagame

Fanatical, partisan, suspicious, childish and fawning relations between UK and Kagame
Kagame receives the British massive aid through the budget support, British excessive consultancy, sector wide programmes, the Tutsi-dominated parliament, British and Tutsi-owned NGOs; for political, economic and English language expansion to Rwanda. The British aid to Rwanda is not for all Rwandans. It is for Kagame himself and his Tutsi cronies.

Paul Kagame' actvities as former rebel


UN News Centre - Africa

The Africa Report - Latest

IRIN - Great Lakes

This blog reports the crimes that remain unpunished and the impunity that has generated a continuous cycle of massacres in many parts of Africa. In many cases, the perpetrators of the crimes seem to have acted in the knowledge that they would not be held to account for their actions.

The need to fight this impunity has become even clearer with the massacres and genocide in many parts of Africa and beyond.

The blog also addresses issues such as Rwanda War Crimes, Rwandan Refugee massacres in Dr Congo, genocide, African leaders’ war crimes and crimes against humanity, Africa war criminals, Africa crimes against humanity, Africa Justice.

-The British relentless and long running battle to become the sole player and gain new grounds of influence in the francophone African Great Lakes Region has led to the expulsion of other traditional players from the region, or strained diplomatic relations between the countries of the region and their traditional friends. These new tensions are even encouraged by the British using a variety of political and economic manoeuvres.

-General Kagame has been echoing the British advice that Rwanda does not need any loan or aid from Rwandan traditional development partners, meaning that British aid is enough to solve all Rwandan problems.

-The British obsession for the English Language expansion has become a tyranny that has led to genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity, dictatorial regimes, human rights violations, mass killings, destruction of families, communities and cultures, permanent refugees and displaced persons in the African Great Lakes region.

- Rwanda, a country that is run by a corrupt clique of minority-tutsi is governed with institutional discrmination, human rights violations, dictatorship, authoritarianism and autocracy, as everybody would expect.