The dictator Kagame at UN

The dictator Kagame at UN
Dictators like Kagame who have changed their national constitutions to remain indefinitely on power should not be involved in UN high level and global activities including chairing UN meetings

Why has the UN ignored its own report about the massacres of Hutu refugees in DRC ?

The UN has ignored its own reports, NGOs and media reports about the massacres of hundreds of thousands of Hutu in DRC Congo (estimated to be more than 400,000) by Kagame when he attacked Hutu refugee camps in Eastern DRC in 1996. This barbaric killings and human rights violations were perpetrated by Kagame’s RPF with the approval of UK and USA and with sympathetic understanding and knowledge of UNHCR and international NGOs which were operating in the refugees camps. According to the UN, NGO and media reports between 1993 and 2003 women and girls were raped. Men slaughtered. Refugees killed with machetes and sticks. The attacks of refugees also prevented humanitarian organisations to help many other refugees and were forced to die from cholera and other diseases. Other refugees who tried to return to Rwanda where killed on their way by RFI and did not reach their homes. No media, no UNHCR, no NGO were there to witness these massacres. When Kagame plans to kill, he makes sure no NGO and no media are prevent. Kagame always kills at night.

30 Oct 2020

Fw: [ibukabose_rengerabose] Fw: Rwanda: deteriorating human rights and security situation

 Rwanda: deteriorating human rights and security situation

 

  • rwandabridgebuilders@gmail.com
    H.E. Amb. Smail Chergui,
    Commissioner, Peace and Security,
    African Union (AU)
    Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
    October 20, 2020
    Your Excellency,
    We, a coalition of 37 organizations, write to you in your capacity as the Chairperson of the
    African Commission on Peace and Security (The Commission), to appeal you to urgently
    address the deteriorating human rights and security situation in Rwanda.
    We reiterate that Rwanda continues to face allegations of human rights violations that are
    of an extremely serious nature. These allegations have been found credible by none less
    than Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International and UN panel on human rights.
    Several well-grounded allegations exist about the extreme lack of fundamental freedoms in
    Rwanda, which it is charged, has resulted in serious violations of freedom of expression,
    association and movement, as well as entrenched impunity and serious human rights
    violations. Together, these make Rwanda the most acute human rights abuser within the
    Great Lakes region..
    Your excellency, we draw your attention to grave human rights violations in Rwanda that
    have been internationally recognised and reports of ongoing human rights violations that
    are regularly highlighted. Despite Rwanda's repeated denial, these serious and persistent
    violations have been widely documented by Human Rights bodies for the past 26 years.
    They also led to a UN Human Rights Council resolution on the country earlier this year. The
    UN High Commissioner for Human Rights has always named Rwanda among the top 10
    countries in the world that have gone unpunished for intimidation and reprisals against
    critics.
    Your excellency, in 1994, Rwanda suffered a tragedy that left over one million of its citizens
    dead as a result of war and genocide. The war and genocide resulted in immense suffering
    to millions more. The war and genocide have had far-reaching repercussions for both
    Rwanda and the Great Lakes region of Central Africa as a whole.
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    President Kagame is perceived by most outsiders as both invincible and indispensable to
    national and regional stability. There is, however, more to Rwanda and Paul Kagame than
    new buildings, clean streets, and efficient government than President Kagame's famous
    friends in high places in Europe and America care to admit. Rwanda is essentially a hard -
    line, one-party, secretive police state with a façade of democracy. The ruling party, the
    Rwandese Patriotic Front (RPF), has closed space for political participation. The RPF does not
    tolerate political opposition or open competition for power. The government ensures its
    monopoly of power by means of draconian restrictions on the exercise of the fundamental
    human rights of citizens. The press, civil society and opposition parties are deprived of
    freedom to operate freely. President Kagame and the ruling party that he leads have always
    depended on repression to stay in power.
    State institutions, especially law enforcement agencies, the judiciary and security services,
    serve to protect the RPF's, and ultimately Kagame's power monopoly instead of protecting
    the fundamental human rights of citizens. Repression has again become particularly acute in
    recent months. There have been assassination attempts, killings and enforced
    disappearances of members of the press and political opposition within and outside
    Rwanda. Purges of political enemies, real and imagined, within the ruling party government
    continue unabated. These purges have now been extended to the military. A climate of fear
    and terror has enveloped the nation. Rwanda is in crisis. The situation that prevails raises
    serious questions about the country's future.
    Current Political status
    Rwanda is a one-party dictatorship under President Kagame. President Kagame has
    effectively corrupted the founding ideals of the RPF. Through RPF, President Kagame denies
    the people of Rwanda the opportunity to exercise their fundamental human rights,
    particularly the right of political participation. President Kagame is both corrupt and
    authoritarian. He uses repression to ensure his continued monopoly of power. State
    institutions violate the most fundamental human rights of the people, including the right to
    life and the integrity of the person, to keep the President Kagame in power. State security
    institutions enjoy impunity for grave human rights violations against critics and opponents
    of the government. President Kagame's abuse of the institutions of the state to support his
    quest for absolute power and economic gain is criminalising the fabric of the Rwandan state.
    Judicial system
    Your excellency, in Rwanda, the functioning of the justice system is constrained by lack of
    judicial independence. The judiciary does not enjoy independence. The independence of
    Rwanda's judiciary is compromised by the executive. The President, through the control that
    he exercises over the Senate Chamber of the legislature, controls most senior judges
    (including the Supreme Court) and through them, the rest of the judiciary. Most of the
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    members of the judiciary are cadres of the ruling party, Rwanda Patriotic Front (RPF). The
    RPF compels its members who have been appointed to the judiciary to continue to owe
    allegiance to the party; to participate in some activities of the party and to pay financial
    contributions to the party's campaign and daily operation.
    Judicial authorities operate in a political context where the executive continues to dominate
    the judiciary and where there is an official antipathy to views diverging from those of the
    government and the dominant party, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF). The judiciary is
    particularly vulnerable to outside interference in cases involving political issues. The
    President, his close advisers and security services personnel frequently coerce members of
    the judiciary to make judicial decisions to suit the interests of the regime. Instead of being
    the protector and defender of citizens' fundamental human rights, the judiciary has become
    one of the main tools by which the regime perpetuates authoritarian rule by persecuting
    opponents and critics.
    Persecution of Political Opponents
    The regime in Rwanda has for years jailed political opponents and disqualified them from
    running for office. Since the ruling Rwandan Patriotic Front took power, Rwandans have
    faced huge, and often deadly, obstacles to participating in public life and voicing criticism of
    government policies. Killings and disappearances need to be placed in the context of many
    years of similar violence for which no one has yet been held to account. In this chilling
    atmosphere, it is unsurprising that would-be government critics practice self-censorship.
    The regime uses the coercive instruments of the state, that is the military, security services
    and police, to sustain the status quo in power against the will of the people. State security
    officers continue to commit grave human rights abuses to suppress all political opposition
    and critics of government. Impunity for gross human rights abuses is worse than it was prior
    to the genocide. Rwanda remains deeply divided along ethnic lines. As a result of these and
    other factors, Rwanda remains unstable and prone to violent, and identity-based conflict.
    The report documents how opposition politicians, journalists and human rights defenders
    have faced restrictions on their rights to freedom of expression, association and peaceful
    assembly in the two decades since the genocide. They have been jailed, physically attacked
    even killed and forced into exile or silence.
    Independent human rights defenders who criticize government policies or are perceived as
    opponents to government have faced different forms of attacks and restrictions in Rwanda.
    NGOs are subject to onerous and costly registration procedures. The nebulous charge of
    promoting 'genocide ideology' has been levied at international and domestic human rights
    organizations who criticize the government.
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    Rwanda's history of political repression, attacks on opposition figures and dissenting voices
    in the context of previous elections, stifles political debate and makes those who might
    speak out think twice before taking the risk.
    People accused of crimes against state security continued to be arrested and held
    unlawfully in military camps. Many people held in these camps were tortured in an attempt
    to force them to confess or accuse others. Authorities continued to round up street
    vendors, sex workers, street children, and other poor people and detained them in so-called
    transit centres across the country.. Conditions in these centres are harsh and inhumane, and
    beatings are common.
    For years, thousands of men, women, and childrenmany of them street children,
    commercial sex workers, or street hawkers are detained unlawfully, without charge or trial,
    in very poor conditions in an unrecognized detention centre commonly known as Kwa
    Kabuga, in the Gikondo area of Kigali. Many were beaten by police, or by other detainees in
    the presence of police.
    Rwanda has degenerated into a criminal state. Victims of human rights violations committed
    against persons considered to be opponents of the government do not have an opportunity
    for seeking redress from the courts. Agents of the state are, to this day, still able to commit
    grave human rights abuses that is killings, torture, and disappearances, without fear of
    being held accountable. Impunity for human rights violations is now far more deeply
    entrenched in the Country, Rwanda.
    Reconciliation
    The promotion of national reconciliation should have been the foremost priority of
    Rwandan society in the aftermath of the genocide. Instead, President Kagame's pursuit of
    absolute power, his intolerance for political opposition, persecution of opponents and critics
    of the regime and partisan nature of the processes of accountability for past human rights
    violations that Rwanda has undertaken, have all led to elusiveness of national unity and
    reconciliation. As a result of the policies that the regime has pursued since it took control of
    government, Rwandan society remains deeply divided.
    The politics of ethnicity remain intractable in Rwanda. Armed insurgents continue to wage
    war against the Rwandan state from their sanctuaries in the Democratic Republic of Congo,
    twenty-six years after the genocide.. Externally - based unarmed opposition has on several
    occasions called for dialogue on how to resolve Rwanda's continuing crisis, but the regime
    has refused to heed to that call of negotiating with its opponents.
    The Kagame led regime has failed to engage and lead Rwandan society in genuine
    reconciliation. The social conditions of post -genocide Rwanda remain constructed in terms
    of ethnic identity. The reconciliation that the Rwanda regime envisions is politically
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    constructed on the terms of the ruling party - RPF and President Kagame, which are
    insufficient for ensuring the long-term stability of Rwanda. Lack of national dialogue on
    reconciliation processes has very profound implications for the long -term stability of
    Rwanda and the security of its population. There cannot be genuine reconciliation in
    Rwanda until the grievances of both Tutsis and Hutus communities are well and genuinely
    discussed.
    Your excellency, Rwanda is a member state of the AU, and it is expected to uphold the
    human rights principles set out in AU's Constitutive Act. Your Excellency, the on-going
    violations of human rights in Rwanda are not in keeping with the country's obligations and
    domestic laws, including the constitution and major international and regional human rights
    instruments ratified by Rwanda. Paul Kagame and his regime violate objectives 3(g) and (h)
    of the Constitutive Act of the AU which enjoins AU member States to promote popular
    participation and human and people's rights, respectively. Recalling the role of the AU as
    the lead regional institution tasked to better the lives of the people of Africa, and particular
    Rwandan citizens as in this case, we respectfully ask you to take measures to ensure that
    the regime of president Paul Kagame restores respect for the rule of law, ensures ample
    protection of human rights and aligns its practices to ratified international and regional
    human rights standards including the Constitutive Act of the AU and the African Charter on
    Human and Peoples' Rights. We respectfully ask you to consider including the situation of
    human rights in Rwanda as a point for discussion in the agenda of the next Summit of the
    Assembly of Heads of State and Government of the AU with recommendations for the
    Summit to deliberate on asking the government of Rwanda to:
    1. Take steps to ensure full compliance with international and regional human rights
    standards;
    2. Release of all political prisoners, human rights campaigners and journalists;
    3. Respect separation of powers by refraining from interfering with the system of
    administration of justice;
    4. Institute effective mechanisms to protect journalists, civil society groups and human
    rights defenders who work for the promotion and protection of human rights;
    5. Halt enforced disappearances, investigate and punish perpetrators of enforced
    disappearances;
    6. Investigate and punish perpetrators and stop attacks against political opponents,
    peaceful decent and journalists;
    7. Allow full and credible international investigations into all allegations concerning
    violations of international humanitarian law in the country;
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    8. Respect the right to access to information and freedom of the media. In particular,
    lift the ban against independent press and media;
    9. Investigate and take actions to punish perpetrators of torture and ensure assistance
    and reparations to the victims;
    10. Address lengthy pre-trial detention and release all detainees who are being held in
    pre-trial detention without proper charges;
    11. Restore Constitutional provisions that guarantee separation of powers and re-instate
    the independence of the three branches of government;
    12. Promote a culture of dialogue and participation and comply with internationally and
    regionally recognised standards on the rule of law and civic space;
    13. Start direct dialogue with Rwandans in exile; and
    14. Accept dialogue with armed groups operating in DR Congo.
    CC: H.E. Moussa Faki Mahamat, Chairperson, AU Commission
    H.E. Amb. Dr. Namira Negm, AU Legal Counsel
    H.E.. Amb. Augustino Njoroge, Interim Chairperson of the Reconstituted Joint
    Monitoring and Evaluation Commission (RJMEC)
    Commissioner Solomon Dersso, Chairperson, African Commission on Human and
    Peoples' Rights (ACHPR)
    H.E. Amb. Mrs Hope Tumukunde Gasatura, Rwanda's Ambassador to Ethiopia and
    Permanent Representative to the African Union
    Signatories:
    1. Action citoyenne pour la Paix
    2. Amahoro-PC
    3. Association des rescapés du génocide des réfugiés rwandais au Congo (Ex-Zaïre-
    RDC) ARGR-Intabaza
    4. Centre de Lutte contre l'Impunité et l'Injustice au Rwanda (CLIIR)
    5. Comité pour l'Unité, la Paix et la Réconciliation au Rwanda (CUPR)
    6. Congrès rwandais du Canada (CRC)
    7. Convention Nationale Républicaine (CNR-Intwari)
    8. Comité de Suivi de la Problématique des Réfugiés Rwandais (CSPR)
    9. COVIGLA, Collectif des victimes des crimes de masse commis dans la region des
    grands lacs africains
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    10. Democratic Rwanda Party, DRP-ABASANGIZI
    11. FDU-Inkingi
    12. Fondation Ibukabose-Rengerabose, Mémoire et Justice pour tous
    13. Global Voice of Rwandan Refugees (GVRR)
    14.. Groupe d'initiative France-Rwanda
    15. Inganzo Gakondo
    16. Initiative du Peuple pour l'Alliance Démocratique (IPAD-Umuhuza)
    17. Initiative Humanitaire pour la région des grands lacs (IHRGL)
    18. Initiative HUMURA
    19. Institut Seth Sendashonga pour la Citoyenneté Démocratique ISCID asbl
    20. JAMBO asbl
    21. Liberté d'Expression Culture et Paix, LECP Info
    22. Mouvement Républicain pour la Paix et le Progrès, MRP
    23. MRCD-Ubumwe
    24. Norway Sub Sahara Africa development organization (NSADO)
    25. Observatoire des Droits de l'Homme au Rwanda (ODHR)
    26. Organization for Peace, Justice and Development in Rwanda and Great Lakes
    Region (OPJDR)
    27. Pacte Démocratique du Peuple (PDP-IMANZI)
    28. PS Imberakuri
    29. Réseau International pour la Promotion et la Défense des Droits de l'Homme au
    Rwanda (RIPRODHOR)
    30.. RNC-Ihuriro
    31. Rwanda National Forum (RNF)
    32. Rwandan Alliance for the National Pact (RANP-Abaryankuna)
    33. Rwandan American Youth Association
    34. Rwandan Platform for Dialogue, Truth, and Justice (RDTJ)
    35. Rwandiska föreningen för mänskliga rättigheter (RFMR)
    36. Rwandiske Forum i Oslo, FORUM RWANDAIS D'OSLO (RFO), Norvège
    37. United Freedom Fighters (UFF-INDANGAMIRWA)

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Envoyé par : Michel Niyibizi <niyimike@yahoo.fr>

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-“The enemies of Freedom do not argue ; they shout and they shoot.”

The principal key root causes that lead to the Rwandan genocide of 1994 that affected all Rwandan ethnic groups were:

1)The majority Hutu community’s fear of the return of the discriminatory monarchy system that was practiced by the minority Tutsi community against the enslaved majority Hutu community for about 500 years

2)The Hutu community’s fear of Kagame’s guerrilla that committed massacres in the North of the country and other parts of the countries including assassinations of Rwandan politicians.

3) The Rwandan people felt abandoned by the international community ( who was believed to support Kagame’s guerrilla) and then decided to defend themselves with whatever means they had against the advance of Kagame’ guerrilla supported by Ugandan, Tanzanian and Ethiopian armies and other Western powers.

-“The enemies of Freedom do not argue ; they shout and they shoot.”

-“The hate of men will pass, and dictators die, and the power they took from the people will return to the people. And so long as men die, liberty will never perish.”

-“The price good men pay for indifference to public affairs is to be ruled by evil men.”

-“I have loved justice and hated iniquity: therefore I die in exile.”

The Rwanda war of 1990-1994 had multiple dimensions.

The Rwanda war of 1990-1994 had multiple dimensions. Among Kagame’s rebels who were fighting against the Rwandan government, there were foreigners, mainly Ugandan fighters who were hired to kill and rape innocent Rwandan people in Rwanda and refugees in DRC.

READ MORE RECENT NEWS AND OPINIONS

SUMMARY : THE TRAGIC CONSEQUENCES OF THE BRITISH BUDGET SUPPORT AND GEO-STRATEGIC AMBITIONS

United Kingdom's Proxy Wars in Africa: The Case of Rwanda and DR Congo:

The Rwandan genocide and 6,000,000 Congolese and Hutu refugees killed are the culminating point of a long UK’s battle to expand their influence to the African Great Lakes Region. UK supported Kagame’s guerrilla war by providing military support and money. The UK refused to intervene in Rwanda during the genocide to allow Kagame to take power by military means that triggered the genocide. Kagame’s fighters and their families were on the Ugandan payroll paid by UK budget support.


· 4 Heads of State assassinated in the francophone African Great Lakes Region.
· 2,000,000 people died in Hutu and Tutsi genocides in Rwanda, Burundi and RD.Congo.
· 600,000 Hutu refugees killed in R.D.Congo, Uganda, Central African Republic and Rep of Congo.
· 6,000,000 Congolese dead.
· 8,000,000 internal displaced people in Rwanda, Burundi and DR. Congo.
· 500,000 permanent Rwandan and Burundian Hutu refugees, and Congolese refugees around the world.
· English language expansion to Rwanda to replace the French language.
· 20,000 Kagame’s fighters paid salaries from the British Budget Support from 1986 to present.
· £500,000 of British taxpayer’s money paid, so far, to Kagame and his cronies through the budget support, SWAPs, Tutsi-dominated parliament, consultancy, British and Tutsi-owned NGOs.
· Kagame has paid back the British aid received to invade Rwanda and to strengthen his political power by joining the East African Community together with Burundi, joining the Commonwealth, imposing the English Language to Rwandans to replace the French language; helping the British to establish businesses and to access to jobs in Rwanda, and to exploit minerals in D.R.Congo.



Thousands of Hutu murdered by Kagame inside Rwanda, e.g. Kibeho massacres

Thousands of Hutu murdered by Kagame inside Rwanda, e.g. Kibeho massacres
Kagame killed 200,000 Hutus from all regions of the country, the elderly and children who were left by their relatives, the disabled were burned alive. Other thousands of people were killed in several camps of displaced persons including Kibeho camp. All these war crimes remain unpunished.The British news reporters were accompanying Kagame’s fighters on day-by-day basis and witnessed these massacres, but they never reported on this.

Download Documents from Amnesty International

25,000 Hutu bodies floated down River Akagera into Lake Victoria in Uganda.

25,000  Hutu bodies  floated down River Akagera into Lake Victoria in Uganda.
The British irrational, extremist, partisan,biased, one-sided media and politicians have disregarded Kagame war crimes e.g. the Kibeho camp massacres, massacres of innocents Hutu refugees in DR. Congo. The British media have been supporting Kagame since he invaded Rwanda by organising the propaganda against the French over the Rwandan genocide, suppressing the truth about the genocide and promoting the impunity of Kagame and his cronies in the African Great Lakes Region. For the British, Rwanda does not need democracy, Rwanda is the African Israel; and Kagame and his guerilla fighters are heroes.The extremist British news reporters including Fergal Keane, Chris Simpson, Chris McGreal, Mark Doyle, etc. continue to hate the Hutus communities and to polarise the Rwandan society.

Kagame political ambitions triggered the genocide.

Kagame  political  ambitions triggered the genocide.
Kagame’s guerrilla war was aimed at accessing to power at any cost. He rejected all attempts and advice that could stop his military adventures including the cease-fire, political negotiations and cohabitation, and UN peacekeeping interventions. He ignored all warnings that could have helped him to manage the war without tragic consequences. Either you supported Kagame’ s wars and you are now his friend, or you were against his wars and you are his enemy. Therefore, Kagame as the Rwandan strong man now, you have to apologise to him for having been against his war and condemned his war crimes, or accept to be labelled as having been involved in the genocide. All key Kagame’s fighters who committed war crimes and crimes against humanity are the ones who hold key positions in Rwandan army and government for the last 15 years. They continue to be supported and advised by the British including Tony Blair, Andrew Mitchell MP, and the British army senior officials.

Aid that kills: The British Budget Support financed Museveni and Kagame’s wars in Rwanda and DRC.

Aid that kills: The British Budget Support  financed Museveni and Kagame’s wars in Rwanda and DRC.
Genocide propaganda and fabrications are used by the so-called British scholars, news reporters and investigative journalists to promote their CVs and to get income out of the genocide through the selling of their books, providing testimonies against the French, access to consultancy contracts from the UN and Kagame, and participation in conferences and lectures in Rwanda, UK and internationally about genocide. Genocide propaganda has become a lucrative business for Kagame and the British. Anyone who condemned or did not support Kagame’s war is now in jail in Rwanda under the gacaca courts system suuported by British tax payer's money, or his/she is on arrest warrant if he/she managed to flee the Kagame’s regime. Others have fled the country and are still fleeing now. Many others Rwandans are being persecuted in their own country. Kagame is waiting indefinitely for the apologies from other players who warn him or who wanted to help to ensure that political negotiations take place between Kagame and the former government he was fighting against. Britain continues to supply foreign aid to Kagame and his cronies with media reports highlighting economic successes of Rwanda. Such reports are flawed and are aimed at misleading the British public to justify the use of British taxpayers’ money. Kagame and his cronies continue to milk British taxpayers’ money under the British budget support. This started from 1986 through the British budget support to Uganda until now.

Dictator Kagame: No remorse for his unwise actions and ambitions that led to the Rwandan genocide.

Dictator Kagame: No remorse for his unwise actions and ambitions that led to the  Rwandan genocide.
No apologies yet to the Rwandan people. The assassination of President Juvenal Habyarimana by Kagame was the only gateway for Kagame to access power in Rwanda. The British media, politicians, and the so-called British scholars took the role of obstructing the search for the truth and justice; and of denying this assassination on behalf of General Kagame. General Paul Kagame has been obliging the whole world to apologise for his mistakes and war crimes. The UK’s way to apologise has been pumping massive aid into Rwanda's crony government and parliement; and supporting Kagame though media campaigns.

Fanatical, partisan, suspicious, childish and fawning relations between UK and Kagame

Fanatical, partisan, suspicious, childish and fawning relations between UK and Kagame
Kagame receives the British massive aid through the budget support, British excessive consultancy, sector wide programmes, the Tutsi-dominated parliament, British and Tutsi-owned NGOs; for political, economic and English language expansion to Rwanda. The British aid to Rwanda is not for all Rwandans. It is for Kagame himself and his Tutsi cronies.

Paul Kagame' actvities as former rebel

Africa

UN News Centre - Africa

The Africa Report - Latest

IRIN - Great Lakes

This blog reports the crimes that remain unpunished and the impunity that has generated a continuous cycle of massacres in many parts of Africa. In many cases, the perpetrators of the crimes seem to have acted in the knowledge that they would not be held to account for their actions.

The need to fight this impunity has become even clearer with the massacres and genocide in many parts of Africa and beyond.

The blog also addresses issues such as Rwanda War Crimes, Rwandan Refugee massacres in Dr Congo, genocide, African leaders’ war crimes and crimes against humanity, Africa war criminals, Africa crimes against humanity, Africa Justice.

-The British relentless and long running battle to become the sole player and gain new grounds of influence in the francophone African Great Lakes Region has led to the expulsion of other traditional players from the region, or strained diplomatic relations between the countries of the region and their traditional friends. These new tensions are even encouraged by the British using a variety of political and economic manoeuvres.

-General Kagame has been echoing the British advice that Rwanda does not need any loan or aid from Rwandan traditional development partners, meaning that British aid is enough to solve all Rwandan problems.

-The British obsession for the English Language expansion has become a tyranny that has led to genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity, dictatorial regimes, human rights violations, mass killings, destruction of families, communities and cultures, permanent refugees and displaced persons in the African Great Lakes region.


- Rwanda, a country that is run by a corrupt clique of minority-tutsi is governed with institutional discrmination, human rights violations, dictatorship, authoritarianism and autocracy, as everybody would expect.